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The modern Irish alphabet consists of the following consonants:

Bb, Cc, Dd, Ff, Gg, Ll, Mm, Nn, Pp, Rr, Ss, and Tt

The letter Hh is used in different places, for example after the initial consonant of the word in certain places. We will see examples of this in upcoming lessons.

The letters Jj, Kk, Qq, Vv, Ww, Xx, Yy, and Zz also feature in words borrowed from other languages, such as veidhlín (violin) and jab (job).

The vowels Aa, Ee, Ii, Oo, and Uu also appear in lengthened forms: á [aw], é [ay], í [ee], ó [oh], and ú [oo]. Let’s hear some examples of both long and short vowels.

cad
kod
what
slán
slawn
good-bye
te
teh
hot
céim
kaym
step
im
im
butter
císte
KEESH-ta
cake
cloch
klokh
stone
ór
ohr
gold
dubh
duv
black

too
you